internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined
by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. Over the centuries, waves of migrating peoples
passed through the region described by historian Arnold Toynbee as a "roundabout of the ancient world"--leaving behind a mosaic
of ethnic and linguistic groups. The outline of the Afghanistan History In modern times, as well as in antiquity, will focus
on vast armies of the world passing through Afghanistan, temporarily establishing local control.
2000 BC - 1500 BC Aryan
Tribes in Aryana Emperor Yama (Ancient Afghanistan)
The City of Kabul is thought to have been
established during this time.
Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan
around this time.
Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq
120 Kushan Empire,
under King Kanishka
Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reach
Under the Kushan King, Kanishka, Buddha was
first given a human face and the world's largest Buddhas (175 feet and 120 feet tall) were carved into the cliff at Bamiyan.
But many gods and goddesses from Greek, Persian, Central Asian and Hindu cultures were also worshipped.
400 Invasion of the
White Huns. They destroy the Buddhist culture, and leave most of the country in ruins
425 - 550 Independent
Yaftalee rule in Afghanistan .Yaftalee Dynasty -Established in northern Hindu Kush region of Takhar, this dynasty gains
control over the majority of present day Afghanistan by 425.
530 Persians reassert
control over all of what is now Afghanistan.
531 - 579 Khosrow
I (Khosrow Anüshirvan), king of Persia
590 - 628 Khosrow II ((Khosrow
Parviz), king of Persia of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty
652 Arabs introduce
Islam that was to influence the course of Afghanistans history
650 - 661 Arabs
- Orthodox Caliphates
Uthman (Osman), 650 - 656
Ali, 656 - 661
661 - 750 Arabs
- Umayyad Caliphate
Mu'awiya I, 661 - 680
Yazid I, 680 - 683
Mu'awiya II, 683 - 684
Marwan I, 684 - 685
Abd-al-Malik, 685 - 705
Al-Walid I, 705 - 715
Suleyman, 715 - 717
Umar II, 717 - 720
Yazid II, 720 - 724
Hisham, 724 - 743
Al-Walid II, 743 - 744
Yazid III, 744
Marwan II, 744 - 750
750 - 821 Arabs
- Abbasid Caliphate
Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, 750 - 754
Al-Mansur, 754 - 775
Al-Mahdi, 775 - 785
Al-Hadi, 785 - 786
Harun al-Rashid, 786 - 809
Al-Amin, 809 - 813
Al-Mamun, 813 - 833
860 - 960 Samanid (Turkestan)
Nasr I, 864 - 892
Ismail, 892 - 907
Ahmad, 907 - 914
Nasr II, 914 - 942
Nuh I, 942 - 954
Abd al-Malik I, 954 - 961
Mansur I, 961 - 976
962 - 1030 Ghaznavid Dynasty -
Mahmud, 970 - 1030 The Islamic era
begins with Mohammed Ghazni and Afghanistan becomes the centre of Islamic power and civilisation. Several short-lived Muslim
dynasties were founded, the most powerful of them having its capital at Ghazna (see Ghazni). Mahmud of Ghazna, who
conquered the lands from Khorasanin Iran to the Punjab in India early in the 11th cent., was the greatest of Afghanistan's
Masoud I, 1030 - 1040
1140 - 1215 Ghorid leaders
from central Afghanistan capture and burn Ghazni, then move on to conquer India.
Ghurid Empire Shansabani Dynasty
Izz Al-Din Husayn I, 1117 - 1146
Sayf al_Din Suri, 1146 - 1149
Baha al-Din Sam I, 1149
Ala al-Din Husayn II, 1149 - 1161
Say al-Din Muhammad I, 1161 - 1163
Ghiyath al_Din Muhammad II, 1163 - 1203
Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad III, 1203 - 1206
Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud, 1206 - 1210
Baha al-Din Sam II, 1210
Ala al-Din Atsiz, 1210 - 1214
Ala al-Din Muhammad IV, 1215 - 1215
1219 - 1221 Mongol Invasion
of Afghanistan by Genghis Khan Empire
Hülagü Khan, 1256 - 1265
Abagha, 1265 - 1282
Tegüder, 1282 - 1284
Arghun, 1284 - 1291
Gaykhatu, 1291 - 1295
Mahmud Ghazan, 1295 - 1304
Uljaytü, 1304 - 1316
Abu Said, 1317 - 1335
Arpa, 1335 - 1336
Musa, 1336 - 1337
Muhammad, 1336 - 1338
Sati Beg, 1338 - 1339
Jahan Temür, 1339 - 1340
Sulayman, 1339 - 1343
1273 Marco Polo crosses
Afghanistan on his voyage from Italy to China to discover the Silk Route. Revolts and battles between smaller kingdoms mark
the next two centurie
1370 - 1404 Timurids and Turkmen
Timur, 1393 - 1405
Miranshah (Western Persia), 1405 - 1408
Khalil (Western Persia 1409 - 1411), 1405
Shah Rokh Shah, 1409 - 1447
Ulugh Beg, 1447 - 1449
Soltan Abu Said, 1451 - 1469
1414 - 1421 The Sayyids
Khizr Khan (1414-1421)
1451 Lodi dynasty An Afghan
by the named Buhlul Khan invades Delhi, and seizes the throne.
1451-1489: Buhlul Khan Lodi
1489-1517: Sikandar Lodi
1504-1519 Moghul dynasty Babur
shah, takes control of Kabul, Babar begins to take control of Afghanistan. Babur, a descendant of Timur
, used Kabul as the base for his conquest of India and the establishment of the Mughal empire in the 16th cent.
1520-1579 Bayazid Roshan (Afghan intellectual)
revolts against the power of the Moghul government. Roshan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls in 1579--but his
struggle for independence continued.
1613-1689 Khushhal Khan Khattak (Afghan
warrior-poet) initiates a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.
1708 Mir Wais Neka f(orerunner
of Afghan independence) makes Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia that had ruled it since 1622. Mir Wais, considered by
some to be the father of Afghan independence, takes over Kandahar. His son, Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and liberates Herat.
1715-- Mir Wais dies peacefully, and lies
in a mausoleum outside of Kandahar.
1722-- Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud, invades
Persia and occupies Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolt, and terminate the Persian occupation of Herat. The
Durranis revolt to throw out Persians from Herat.
1725 (April 25)--Mir Mahmud is mysteriously
killed after going mad. Afghans start to lose control of Persia.
1736 Persian King Nadir Shah
occupies the south-west and later Kandahar; assassinated in 1747.
the Persian Nadir Shah extended his
rule to N of the Hindu Kush. After his death (1747) his lieutenant, Ahmad Shah, an Afghan tribal leader, established a
united state covering most of present-day Afghanistan. His dynasty, the Durrani, gave the Afghans the name (Durrani) that
they themselves frequently use.
1747 Nadir Shah is assassinated, and
the Afghans rise once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali retake Kandahar, and
establish modern Afghanistan.
1747 - 1773 Ahmad Shah Durrani,
also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali and (Ahmad Shah Baba) is the founder of today's Afghanistan. Pir Sabir Shah, the spiritual
guide of the time, showered his praise for the young Ahmad Shah by declaring him Dar-e-Durran (pearl of the pearls) not because
that he was a military giant but for his humanity a definite quality of a statesman. The start of the Durrani's Empire.
1773 - 1793 Timur Shah
Relocated the capital of Afghanistan
from Kandahar to Kabul.
1793 - 1800 Zaman Shah
He began to remove prominent Muhammadzai
leaders from positions of power and replacing them with men of his own lineage, the Sadozai. This upset the delicate balance
of Durrani tribal politics that Ahmad Shah had established and may have prompted Painda Khan and other Durrani chiefs to plot
against the shah. Painda Khan and the chiefs of the Nurzai and the Alizai Durrani clans were executed, as was the chief of
the Qizilbash clan. Painda Khan's son fled to Iran and pledged the substantial support of his Muhammadzai followers to a rival
claimant to the throne, Zeman's older brother, Mahmood Shah. The clans who's chiefs Zeman had executed joined forces with
the rebels, and they took Kandahar without bloodshed.
1800 - 1803 Shah Mahmood
King of Afghanistan (1800 - 03; second
time 1810 - 26)
1803 - 1810 Shah Shujah
King of Afghanistan (1803 -10;
second time 1839 - 42) whose alliance with the British led to his death.
1810 - 1826 Shah Mahmood
and his brother Zaman Shah struggle for the throne.
1819-1826 Shaw Mahmood but the reign of
the Sadozai line ended in 1818, and no predominant ruler emerged until Dost Muhammad became emir in 1826.
1826 - 1839 Dost Mohammad
Khan takes Kabul, and establishes control. During his rule the status of Afghanistan became an international problem,
as Britain and Russia contested for influence in central Asia. Aiming to control access to the northern approaches to India,
the British tried to replace Dost Muhammad with a former emir, subordinate to them. This policy caused the first Afghan War
(183842) between the British and the Afghans. Dost Muhammad was at first deposed but, after an Afghan revolt in Kabul, was
restored. In 1857, Dost Muhammad signed an alliance with the British. He died in 1863 and was succeeded, after family fighting,
by his third son, Sher Ali.
King of Afghanistan (1826 - 39; second
time 1843 - 63)
1832--1833 Persia moves into Khurasan (province),
and threatens Herat. Afghans defend Herat successfully.
1834-- (May) Afghans lose Peshawar
to the Sikhs; later they crushed the Sikhs under the leadership of Akbar Khan who defeated the Sikhs near
Jamrud, and killed the great Sikh general Hari Singh. However, they failed to retake Peshawar
due to disunity and bad judgment on the part of Dost Mohammad Khan.
1836 Dost Mohammad Khan is proclaimed
as Amir al-mu' minin (commander of the faithful). He was well on the road toward reunifying the whole of Afghanistan
when the British, in collaboration with an ex-king (Shah Shuja), invade Afghanistan to curtail the growing Russian
and Persian influence.
1839 - 1842 Shah Shuja is installed
as a "puppet king" by the British .
First Anglo-Afghan War
After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad
Khan surrenders to the British and is deported to India. (1839-1842)
April 1842--Shah Shuja killed by Afghans.
1842-1844 Akbar Khan (Afghan
hero) is victorious against the British. The ferocity was such that the 16,500- B British garrison with 12,000 support
staff and dependents were wiped out. Only one survived, of mixed British-Indian garrison, reaches the fort in Jalalabad,
on a stumbling pony.
Mohammad Akbar Khan was a major player in the defeat of the British army in the first Anglo-Afghan
War (1839-1842). He outsmarted and killed Sir William MacNaughten, a top British official who highly advocated the invasion
and subjugation of Afghanistan by the British army. Mohammad Akbar was very ambitous and wanted to regain all the land that
was lost by the Afghans, and rebuild another great empire, similar to Ahmad Shah Abdali's. However, his father, Dost Mohammad
Khan, who wanted to work with the British, feared his son's rise to power. Many believed that Amir Dost Mohammad poisoned
his own son at the age of 29. Mohammad Akbar Khan is highly revered by Afghans today, and is seen as a major historical hero.
A residential area of Kabul is named after him.
By 1843 the nation declares independence,
Dost Khan returns to occupy the throne.
In 1844, Akbar Khan dies.
1843 - 1863 Dost Mohammad
Khan comes back and occupies the royal throne. After the annihilation of British troops, Afghanistan once again
1859-- British take Baluchistan , and Afghanistan
becomes completely landlocked.
1863 - 1866 Sher Ali Dost
Mohammad Khan's son , succeeds to the throne.
King of Afghanistan (1863 - 66; second
time 1868 - 79)
(1865)--Russia takes Bukhara,
Tashkent, and Samerkand.
1866 - 1867 Mohamad Afzal
Mohammad Afzal occupies Kabul and proclaims
October, 1867--Mohammad Afzal dies.
1867 - 1868 Mohammad Azam
Mohammad Azam succeeds to the throne
1868--Mohammad Azam flees to Persia
1868 - 1879 Sher Ali reasserts
1873 Russia establishes a fixed boundary
with Afghanistan and promises to respect its territorial integrity.
1878-British launch their second war. For
the second time, the Afghans spirited resistance forces them to withdraw. Sher Ali dies. Mohammad Yaqub Khan takes over but
concedes to the British such key territories as Khyber and Pischin. The Afghans will never get back these regions.
1879 - Amir Muhammad Yaqub
Khan takes over until October 1879.
Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gives up the following
Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lose these territories permanently.
Kabul occupied by British forces
1880 - 1901 Abdur Rahman
takes throne of Afghanistan. He was, however, recognized by the British as emir in 1880, and he supported British interests
Battle of Maiwand
July 1880, Afghan woman
named Malalai carries the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British.
She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valour.
The British, shortly after the accession
of the new Amir, withdraw from Afghanistan, although they retain the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations.
Abdur Rahman establishes fixed borders
and he loses a lot of Afghan land.
Nuristan converted to Islam.
1885- Russian forces seize the Panjdeh
Oasis, a piece of Afghan territory north of the Oxus River. Afghans tried to retake it, but was finally forced
to allow the Russians to keep Panjdeh, and the Russians promised to honor Afghan territorial integrity in the future.
1893- The Durand line fixes borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting
Afghan tribal areas, leaving half of Afghans in what is now Pakistan.
1895 Afghanistan's northern border is fixed
and guaranteed by Russia
1901-- Abdur Rahman dies, his son
Habibullah succeeds him.
1907- 1919 Habibullah Khans regime.Russia
and Great Britain sign the convention of St. Petersburg, Agreement reached between British and Russian governments over the
territorial integrity of Afghanistan
1919 - 1929 Amanullah Khan
(The reform King)
1921--Third Anglo-Afghan war.
1929 - 1930 Habibullah
Kalakani (Bachae Saqaw)
1930 - 1933 Nadir Khan takes the throne; his tribal army loots government
buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters,
and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan are killed by Nadir Khan. Now Nadir Khan establishes full control.
1933-- Nadir Khan was assassinated
by a High School student whos father served Amanullah Khan and was killed by Nadir Khan.
Zahir Shaw, at the age of 19 inherits
the throne, even though he did not want to take the throne. He rules until 1973. Zahir Shah's uncles serve as
prime ministers and advisors until 1953.
Mahmud Tarzi dies in Turkey at the age
of 68 with a heart full of sorrow and despair toward his country.
1940 - 1973 Zahir Shah
proclaims Afghanistan as neutral during WW2
1949-- Afghanistan's Parliament denounces
the Durand Treaty and refuses to recognize the Durand line as a legal boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pashtuns
in Pashtunistan (Occupied Afghan Land) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but their proclamation goes unacknowledged
by the world community.
1973-- July 17th: Zahir Shah is in
Europe, when his government is overthrown in a military coup headed by Daoud Khan his cousin.
1973 - 1978 Daoud Khan abolishes the
monarchy, declares himself President. The Republic of Afghanistan is established.
1978-- Bloody Communist coup: Daoud is
1978 - 1979 Taraki is named President,
June--Afghan guerrilla (Mujahideen)
movement is born.
1979--Taraki is killed
1979 - Hafizullah Amin takes
Mass killings of Afghans
US ambassador killed
1979 --Amin is executed
1979 - 1986 Babrak
Karmal replaceing Amin
1979 Soviet Union (Russia) invade
Babrak Karmal is replaced
by Dr. Najibullah.
1986 - 1992 Dr. Najibullah replaceing
1987-- Najibullah proposes ceasefire, but
the Mujahideen refuse to deal with a "puppet government".
1988--1989 Peace accords signed in Geneva
. Soviet Union defeated by Afghanistan, total withdrawal by the Soviets occurred on Feb. 15, 1989.
1992 April 15 The Mujahideen take Kabul
and liberate Afghanistan, Najibullah is protected by UN.
The Mujahideen form an Islamic State--Islamic
Professor Burhannudin Rabbani takes power.
Through 1993, Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami
forces, allied with the Shi'a Hezb-i-Wahdat militia, clashed intermittently with Rabbani and Masood's Jamiat forces. Dostam
switched sides, precipitating largescale fighting in Kabul and in northern provinces.
1994-The Talibanmilitia are born, and advance
rapidly against the Islamic government. Dostum and Hekmatyar continued to clash against Rabbani and Masood's government,
and as a result Kabul is reduced to rubble.
1996 - 2001 Mullah Omar Taliban militia
force President Rabbani and his government out of Kabul. After the capture of Kabul, the Taliban executed Najibullah.
2001 - Dec. 5 Hamid Karzai interim